Advent Lessons and Carols
"Beloved in Christ, in this season of Advent, let it be
our care and delight to prepare ourselves to hear again
the message of the Angels, and in heart and mind to go
even unto Bethlehem, to see the Babe lying in a manger..."
So begins the heart-catching Service of Advent Lessons and Carols, a beloved service one can find being used, in some form or another by Christians, Anglican or not, throughout the world. Why is it so compelling? Is it the beautiful sacred spaces in England that are associated with it, in services broadcast annually by the BBC and rebroadcast by PBS? No. The service originated in a cathedral, but the cathedral, Truro, was at the time a wooden shed and resembled not even faintly the cathedral that it is today. Is it the exquisite music? It, too, is beautiful, but we think not. We believe that the deeper power of this service lies first in its nine lessons which tell the story that pierces the human heart and fills it, too.
The Advent Festival of Lessons and Music is a long-established service held here at Saint Francis Church. It provides an opportunity for all choirs of our parish to gather and lead us in marking the beginning of the church year and to sharpen our focus on Advent, a season of preparation leading us to a fuller understanding of our celebration of the Nativity, which is to come.
Come hear again the readings from Holy Scripture that tell the story of the fall of sinful man in the garden of Eden and God’s ensuing promise of redemption through the birth, life, death, and resurrection of his Son, Jesus. The choral music offered by the choirs and the congregational hymns are chosen to reflect on these passages and meant to help anchor us more securely in heart and mind as we wait with joyful expectation for the coming of our Lord and Savior.
This year’s service will include music by John Erickson, Howard Skempton, Sir John Stainer, and Philip Baker, in addition to traditional Advent hymns and plainsong. A reception follows in Saint Francis Hall, to which all cordially are invited. No reservations are necessary and there will be childcare for infants and the very young.
I hope you will join us for this festal annual occasion and bring a guest.
—Gary Davison, Organist & Choirmaster
The Service of Nine Lessons and Carols was first sung at the Cathedral of Truro England when said cathedral was physically nothing more than a wooden shed. It was later adapted for use in King's College Chapel, Cambridge University, England.
Herewith, the history of the origination and development of the service [from the web site of The King's College, Cambridge University]:
Our Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols was first held on Christmas Eve 1918. It was planned by Eric Milner-White, who at the age of thirty-four had just been appointed Dean of King’s after experience as an army chaplain which had convinced him that the Church of England needed more imaginative worship. (He devised our Advent Carol Service in 1934, and was a liturgical pioneer and authority during his twenty two years as Dean of York.) The music was then directed by Arthur Henry Mann, Organist 1876–1929. The choir included sixteen trebles as laid down in King Henry VI’s statutes, but until 1927 the men’s voices were provided partly by Choral Scholars and partly by older Lay Clerks, and not, as now, by fourteen undergraduates.
A revision of the Order of Service was made in 1919, involving rearrangement of the lessons, and from that date the service has always begun with the hymn ‘Once in royal David’s city’. In almost every year some carols have been changed and some new ones introduced by successive Organists: Arthur Henry Mann; Boris Ord, 1929–57; Harold Darke (his substitute during the war), 1940–45; Sir David Willcocks, 1957–73; Philip Ledger, 1974–82 and, from 1982, Stephen Cleobury. The backbone of the service, the lessons and the prayers, has remained virtually unchanged.
The original service was, in fact, adapted from an Order drawn up by E.W. Benson, later Archbishop of Canterbury, for use in the wooden shed, which then served as his cathedral in Truro, at 10 p.m. on Christmas Eve 1880. A.C. Benson recalled: ‘My father arranged from ancient sources a little service for Christmas Eve – nine carols and nine tiny lessons, which were read by various officers of the Church, beginning with a chorister, and ending, through the different grades, with the Bishop.’ The suggestion had come from G.H.S. Walpole, later Bishop of Edinburgh.
Almost immediately other churches adapted the service for their own use. A wider frame began to grow when the service was first broadcast in 1928 and, with the exception of 1930, it has been broadcast annually, even during the Second World War, when the ancient glass (and also all heat) had been removed from the Chapel and the name of King’s could not be broadcast for security reasons.
Sometime in the early 1930s the BBC began broadcasting the service on overseas programmes. It is estimated that there are millions of listeners worldwide, including those to Radio Four in the United Kingdom. In recent years it has become the practice to broadcast a digital recording on Christmas Day on Radio Three, and since 1963 a shorter service has been filmed periodically for television. Recordings of carols by Decca and EMI have also served to spread its fame.
In these and other ways the service has become public property. From time to time the College receives copies of services held, for example, in the West Indies or the Far East and these show how widely the tradition has spread. The broadcasts, too, have become part of Christmas for many far from Cambridge. One correspondent writes that he heard the service in a tent on the foothills of Everest; another, in the desert. Many listen at home, busy about their own preparations for Christmas. Visitors from all over the world are heard to identify the Chapel as ‘the place where the Carols are sung’.
Wherever the service is heard and however it is adapted, whether the music is provided by choir or congregation, the pattern and strength of the service, as Dean Milner-White pointed out, derive from the lessons and not the music. ‘The main theme is the development of the loving purposes of God ...’ seen ‘through the windows and words of the Bible’. Local interests appear, as they do here, in the bidding prayer, and personal circumstances give point to different parts of the service. Many of those who took part in the first service must have recalled those killed in the Great War when it came to the famous passage ‘all those who rejoice with us but on another shore and in a greater light’. The centre of the service is still found by those who ‘go in heart and mind’ and who consent to follow where the story leads.
TO-NIGHT ungather’d let us leave
This laurel, let this holly stand:
We live within the stranger’s land,
And strangely falls our Christmas-eve.
Our father’s dust is left alone
And silent under other snows:
There in due time the woodbine blows,
The violet comes, but we are gone.
Let cares that petty shadows cast,
By which our lives are chiefly proved,
A little spare the night I loved,
And hold it solemn to the past.
But let no footstep beat the floor,
Nor bowl of wassail mantle warm;
For who would keep an ancient form
Thro’ which the spirit breathes no more?
Be neither song, nor game, nor feast;
Nor harp be touch’d, nor flute be blown;
No dance, no motion, save alone
What lightens in the lucid east
Of rising worlds by yonder wood.
Long sleeps the summer in the seed;
Run out your measured arcs, and lead
The closing cycle rich in good.
‘IN MEMORIAM, CV’
ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON